Energy and Power

Natural gas power plants are a type of power plant that use natural gas as their fuel in order to generate electricity. This process is done using a large gas turbine, where the natural gas is input along with a stream of air which is combusted, and then expands through a turbine causing a generator to spin. Natural gas power plants have many benefits compared to the other primary energy sources used for generating electricity. They have a lower total cost and are the most efficient of the baseload power providers, and the burning of natural gas is incredibly clean compared to coal and oil.
[2] Along with reduced emissions natural gas plants are also able to dispatch quicker than coal-fired power plants, meaning they can be flipped on or off faster in order to meet societies electricity needs. [3] The use of natural gas accounts for around 23% of the world's electricity generation (see the data visualization below). This is second only to coal, which is the dominant energy source in countries like China and India.

Types of power plants

Steam turbine:

Most traditional power plants make energy by burning fuel to release heat. For that reason, they're called thermal (heat-based) power plants. Coal and oil plants work much as I've shown in the artwork above, burning fuel with oxygen to release heat energy, which boils water and drives a steam turbine. This basic design is sometimes called a simple cycle. Cutaway model of a steam turbine: An excellent cutaway model of a steam turbine and electricity generator. Steam flows into the turbine through the huge gray pipes at the top, turning the windmill-like turbine in the middle. As the turbine spins, it turns the electricity generator connected to it. This model lives in Think Tank, the science and engineering museum in Birmingham, England.
Gas turbine:

Natural gas plants work in a slightly different way that's quite similar to how a jet engine works. Instead of making steam, they burn a steady stream of gas and use that to drive a slightly different design of turbine (called a gas turbine) instead.
Combined designs:

Every power plant ever built has had one main objective: to get as much useful electricity as possible from its fuel—in other words, to be as efficient as possible. When jet engines scream through the sky firing hot gases like rocket jets in their wake, they're wasting energy. There's not much we can about that in a plane, but we can do something about it in power station. We can take the hot exhaust gases coming from a gas turbine and use them to power a steam turbine as well in what's called a combined cycle. That allows us to produce as much as 50 percent more electricity from the fuel compared to an ordinary, simple cycle plant.
Alternatively, we can improve the efficiency of a power plant by passing waste gases through a heat exchanger so they heat up water instead. This design is called combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration, and it's rapidly becoming one of the most popular designs (it can also be used for very small-scale power production in units roughly the same size as car engines).


Nuclear power plants work in a similar way to simple cycle coal or oil plants but, instead of burning fuel, they smash atoms apart to release heat energy. This is used to boil water, generate steam, and power a steam turbine and generator in the usual way. For more details, see our main article on how nuclear power plants


While all these types of power plants are essentially thermal (generating and releasing heat to drive a steam or gas turbine), two other very common types don't use any heat whatsoever. Hydroelectric and pumped storage plants are designed to funnel vast amounts of water past enormous water turbines (think of them as very efficient water wheels), which drive generators directly. In a hydroelectric plant, a river is made to back up behind a huge concrete dam. The water can escape through a relatively small opening in the dam called a penstock and, as it does so, it makes one or more turbines spin around. For as long as the river flows, the turbines spin and the dam generates hydroelectric power. Although they produce no pollution or emissions, hydroelectric stations are very damaging in other ways: they degrade rivers by blocking their flow and they flood huge areas, forcing many people from their homes.
Pumped storage generates electricity in a similar way to a hydroelectric plant, but shuttles the same water back and forth between a high-level lake and a lower one. At times of peak demand, the water is allowed to escape from the high lake to the lower one, generating electricity at a high price. When demand is lower, in the middle of the night, the water is pumped back up again from the low lake to the high one using low-rate electricity. So pumped storage is really a way of taking advantage of how electricity is worth more at some times than at others.
Risks in gas Plants and oil industry:
Health and safety has been prioritized in oil and gas industry for many years. Still, occupational hygiene exposures are often taken with proper care to determine the true risk to workers.
Oil and gas workers exposed to chemicals produced and used in oil and gas industry may suffer occupational diseases of lungs, skin and other organs at levels relying on the amount and length of exposure time. Those exposed to hazardous noise levels may suffer noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Other hazards include confined spaces that may injury or threaten life of untrained workers.

1. Exposure control plan (ECP)
Employers in the oil and gas industry must develop and conduct a written exposure control plan (ECP) whenever your workers may be exposed too much to chemical hazards, including drilling fluids, hydrogen sulfide, silica, diesel exhaust and mercury.

An effective plan gives a detailed approach to protect workers against chemical exposures, inclusive of health hazard information, engineering controls, safe working procedures, worker training and record keeping.

1. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Often, H2S is found in oil and natural gas deposits, some mineral rocks. Oil and gas workers can find H2S in oil and natural gas wells, refineries and pipelines that carry unrefined petroleum.
H2S is a really toxic gas without color and rotten egg-rotten smell. This gas can irritate lungs, throat, nose, eyes. With high levels of H2S, poisoning can be quick and fatal with little warning. A worker not wearing protective equipment may quickly pass out. The body may tremble and death may eventuate without seconds or minutes due to breathing failure. Only if first aid is given immediately, to revive the victim may be possible. If an H2S leak happens, the area must be evacuated. Only workers wearing proper protective equipment may enter the site to correct the problem.
Employers must develop and carry out effective plans of evacuation/ rescue and exposure control, including training for workers and supervisors. 2. Drilling fluids
During drilling, a high volume of drilling fluids is flown through the well and into systems that are open, partially enclosed or completely enclosed at elevated temperatures. When those fluids are agitated, because they are during part of re-circulation process, workers may suffer significant exposure and subsequent health effects. The effects from this occupational health hazards comprise of dizziness, drowsiness, headaches and nausea (commonly associated with hydrocarbon exposure) and dermatitis and sensitization due to repeated skin contact with drilling fluids. Additionally, exposure to oil mists can induce irritation and inflammation of respiratory system. Some of mildly refined base oils have also related to cancer owing to aromatic compounds in oil mists.
Workers spending a considerable portion of their shifts in the below areas may be exposed really significantly to hydrocarbons and oil mists:
• Drilling floor
• Mud pits/tanks (in which treated drilling fluids are retained before pumping to drill hole)
• Shale shakers (in which drill cuttings are shaken from drilling fluids that return from drill hole)
• Chemical mixing station/room
3. Silica
Silica is fundamental component of sand and rock. Some typical silica-containing materials include:
• Concrete, concrete block, mortar, cement
• Granite, sand, top soil, fill dirt
• Asphalt (containing stone or rock)
• Abrasive for blasting
• Hydraulic fracturing sand (contains as much as 99% silica)

Prolonged breathing of fine crystalline silica dust will cause silicosis disease. The particles are deposited in lungs, leading to thickening and scarring of lung tissue. Initially, employees with silicosis may have no systems though, when the disease progresses, they may suffer breath shortness, severe cough and weakness. Those symptoms can become worse over time and induce death. Crystalline silica exposure has also been associated with lung cancer. Workers carrying out the below activities are at risk of breathing the silica dust:
• Abrasive blasting using silica-containing products
• Drilling using dry product additive that contain quartz
• Cementing operations
• Shale dryer maintenance (dry particulate may comprise quartz)
• Hydraulic fracturing (loading, unloading, moving or storing sand)
• Sweeping or moving sand or gravel that contains silica
4. Mercury
Mercury is a natural component of oil and gas, and may have high concentrations in some formations. The mercy can be released from geological deposits by heat and pressure, and then migrated to oil and gas traps as a vapor.
When those gas reservoirs are produced and processed fluids are cooled, the liquid mercury can condense in heat exchangers, separators, coolers, valves and piping. When such equipment (component made from aluminum alloys or magnesium) is disassembled for maintenance or repair, employees can be exposed to mercury vapor.
Working activities that may put workers at risk of exposing to mercury in gas processing facilities include:
• Welding, grinding, buffing, and polishing
• Vessel cleaning
• Hydro excavating
• Machining
• Pipefitting
• Installing and removing components or infrastructure
• Electrical work
Long term exposure to high concentration of mercury vapor does harm to the central nervous system and can induce tremors, stupor, nervousness, personality changes, vision and hearing problems. 
What you get:
• safety concept
• Hazardous area classification
• Active fire fighting
• HAZOP& HAZID reports
• List of hazardous sources
• Q H.S.E Plan
• Safety and environmental management
• Hazardous area classification and procedure review
• Design safety management
• Safety equipment layout
• Material safety data sheet (MSDS)
• Risk Likelihood and impact analysis Report
• SIL Study Report
• Waste & Emission Management